Romanians (29 700 persons) and Poles (19 800) were the two largest groups of EU citizens acquiring citizenship of another EU Member State.
In 2016, around 995 000 persons acquired citizenship of a Member State of the European Union (EU), up from
841 000 in 2015 and 889 000 in 2014. Of the total number of persons obtaining the citizenship of one of the EU
Member States in 2016, 12% were former citizens of another EU Member State, while the majority were non-EU
citizens or stateless.
The largest group acquiring citizenship of an EU Member State where they lived in 2016 was citizens of Morocco
(101 300 persons, of whom 89% acquired citizenship of Spain, Italy or France), ahead of citizens of Albania (67
500, 97% acquired citizenship of Italy or Greece), India (41 700, almost 60% acquired British citizenship),
Pakistan (32 900, more than half acquired British citizenship), Turkey (32 800, almost half acquired German
citizenship), Romania (29 700, 44% acquired Italian citizenship), and Ukraine (24 000, 60% acquired citizenship
of Germany, Romania, Portugal or Italy). Moroccans, Albanians, Indians, Pakistanis, Turks, Romanians, and
Ukrainians represented together about a third (33%) of the total number of persons who acquired citizenship of an
EU Member State in 2016.
Highest naturalisation rate in Croatia and Sweden
The naturalisation rate is the ratio of the number of persons who acquired the citizenship of a country during a year
over the stock of foreign residents in the same country at the beginning of the year. In 2016, the highest
naturalisation rates were registered in Croatia (9.7 citizenships granted per 100 resident foreigners), Sweden (7.9)
and Portugal (6.5), followed by Romania and Greece (both 4.2), Finland and Italy (both 4.1). At the opposite end
of the scale, naturalisation rates below 1 citizenship acquisition per 100 resident foreigners were recorded in
Austria, Latvia and Slovakia (all 0.7), Estonia and Lithuania (0.9) and the Czech Republic (1.0).